Inflammation makes mucous membranes vulnerable to secondary bacterial infection. These mucous membranes can be in the mouth and throat, the nasal passages, the bronchial tubes, the lining of the gut, the urinary tract and genitals – particularly the vagina in women. So this secondary infection can result in, for example, bronchitis, cystitis, or thrush.
Antibiotics may be prescribed for the acute bacterial infection. Unfortunately, however, antibiotics invariably make make the original underlying condition far worse in the long-term, by exacerbating the disordered microbiome. This pushes histamine levels still higher – causing inflammation to become systemic and chronic.
Colitis and irritable bowel may appear in the longer term – or endometeosis of the female reproductive system with consequent infertility – or asthma or chronic bronchitis – depending on which mucous membranes are inflamed.
Some examples of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases:-
- Addison’s disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Ankylosing Spondylitis
- Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Chronic Fatigue
- Coeliac disease
- Colitis (ulcerative)
- Crohn’s disease
- Diabetes (type 1)
- Graves’ disease
- Hepatitis (active)
- Huntington’s disease
- Inflammatory Arthritis
- Lupus Erythematosus (systemic)
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Myalgic encephalomyelitis
- Myasthenia gravis
- Parkinson’s disease
- Peptic ulcer (chronic)
- Pernicious anemia
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Sjogren’s Syndrome
- Vasculitis (autoimmune)
Inflammation and the brain
Chronic inflammation in the body can lead to inflammation in the brain. New research has led to important advances in our understanding of how inflammation can have important long-term implications for the brain, altering cognition, mood, and behaviour. The same processes that provoke the inflammatory response in the body also initiate the communication process to the central nervous system. They accumulate in the bloodstream and thereby travel to the brain, where they cross into those regions in the brain where the barrier is weak. In addition, there are neural as well as blood-borne communication routes. For example, there are cytokine receptors on nerves, such as the vagus, that innervate peripheral immune organs, and these nerves, that communicate to the brain, are activated during infection.
In other words, peripheral inflammation induces neuroinflammation – i.e. inflammation in the brain. During a normal infection, neuroinflammation and the resulting adaptive sickness behaviours persist only for a few days. However, if these responses become exaggerated or prolonged, the outcomes may well become established, leading to cognitive impairment instead of brief memory disruption, depression instead of reduced mood, chronic fatigue instead of inactivity, and chronic pain instead of acute pain.
Neuroinflammation is now a well-characterised feature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. Immune dysfunction outside of the central nervous system is also increasingly recognised as part of these diseases. Peripheral inflammation has emerged as a modulator of disease progression and neuropathy in general.
More pages coming soon
explaining the role of the epigenetics in specific disorders
Nowadays it is known that intestinal micotoxins produced by a disordered microbiome can react with DNA, causing epigenetic mutations – changes in gene expression that are transmissible from parent to offspring – but do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Cancer is just one consequence.
In the meantime see:-
For how to deal with gut dysbiosis and inflammation through diet